An analysis of star formation with Herschel in the Hi-GAL Survey
II. The tips of the Galactic bar
1 Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, USA
2 INAF-IAPS, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy
3 Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
4 Department of Physics, Nagoya University, 464-8603 Nagoya, Japan
5 Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universitá del Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
6 INFN, Sezione di Lecce, 73100 Lecce, Italy
7 Solar-terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, 464-8601 Nagoya, Japan
8 National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo, Japan
9 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
10 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 SRF, UK
11 Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Hashimoto, 599-853 Kazunari, Japan
12 Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31028 Toulouse, France
13 CNRS, IRAP, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
14 Departement of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
15 Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Institute for Space Imaging Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N IN4, Canada
16 Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), 13013 Marseille, France
Received: 21 January 2014
Accepted: 31 August 2016
Context. We present the physical and evolutionary properties of prestellar and protostellar clumps in the Herschel Infrared GALactic plane survey (Hi-GAL) in two large areas centered in the Galactic plane and covering the tips of the long Galactic bar at the intersection with the spiral arms. The areas fall in the longitude ranges 19° <ℓ < 33° and 340° < ℓ < 350°, while latitude is −1° < b < 1°. Newly formed high mass stars and prestellar objects are identified and their properties derived and compared. A study is also presented on five giant molecular complexes at the further edge of the bar, identified through ancillary 12CO(1–0) data from the NANTEN observatory.
Aims. One of the goals of this analysis is assessing the role of spiral arms in the star-formation processes in the Milky Way. It is, in fact, still a matter of debate if the particular configuration of the Galactic rotation and potential at the tips of the bar can trigger star formation.
Methods. The star-formation rate was estimated from the quantity of proto-stars expected to form during the collapse of massive turbulent clumps into star clusters. The expected quantity of proto-stars was estimated by the possible final cluster configurations of a given initial turbulent clump. This new method was developed by applying a Monte Carlo procedure to an evolutionary model of turbulent cores and takes into account the wide multiplicity of sources produced during the collapse.
Results. The star-formation rate density values at the tips are and in the first and fourth quadrant, respectively. The same values estimated on the entire field of view, that is including the tips of the bar and background and foreground regions, are and . The conversion efficiency indicates the percentage amount of material converted into stars and is approximately 0.8% in the first quadrant and 0.5% in the fourth quadrant, and does not show a significant difference in proximity of the bar. The star forming regions identified through CO contours at the further edge of the bar show star-formation rate and star-formation rate densities larger than the surrounding regions but their conversion efficiencies are comparable.
Conclusions. The tips of the bar show an enhanced star-formation rate with respect to background and foreground regions. However, the conversion efficiency shows little change across the observed fields suggesting that the star-formation activity at the bar is due to a large amount of dust and molecular material rather than being due to a triggering process.
Key words: stars: formation / Galaxy: stellar content / infrared: ISM / surveys
© ESO, 2017