1 Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
2 Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 München, Germany
3 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
4 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
5 Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands
Received: 2 October 2016
Accepted: 4 September 2017
Context. Spectroscopic studies of ices in nearby star-forming regions indicate that ice mantles form on dust grains in two distinct steps, starting with polar ice formation (H2O rich) and switching to apolar ice (CO rich).
Aims. We test how well the picture applies to more diffuse and quiescent clouds where the formation of the first layers of ice mantles can be witnessed.
Methods. Medium-resolution near-infrared spectra are obtained toward background field stars behind the Pipe Nebula.
Results. The water ice absorption is positively detected at 3.0 μm in seven lines of sight out of 21 sources for which observed spectra are successfully reduced. The peak optical depth of the water ice is significantly lower than those in Taurus with the same AV. The source with the highest water-ice optical depth shows CO ice absorption at 4.7 μm as well. The fractional abundance of CO ice with respect to water ice is 16-6+7%, and about half as much as the values typically seen in low-mass star-forming regions.
Conclusions. A small fractional abundance of CO ice is consistent with some of the existing simulations. Observations of CO2 ice in the early diffuse phase of a cloud play a decisive role in understanding the switching mechanism between polar and apolar ice formation.
Key words: astrochemistry / ISM: clouds / ISM: individual objects: the Pipe Nebula / ISM: molecules / infrared: ISM / solid state: volatile
Based on data collected by SpeX at the Infrared Telescope Facility, which is operated by the University of Hawaii under contract NNH14CK55B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Based also on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.
The final reduced spectra (FITS format) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A9
© ESO, 2018