XMM-Newton X-ray and HST weak gravitational lensing study of the extremely X-ray luminous galaxy cluster Cl J120958.9+495352 (z = 0.902)
Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn,
Auf dem Hügel 71,
2 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3 Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085, USA
4 Department of Physics, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085, USA
5 SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
6 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
7 Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
8 Cadmus, Energy Services Division, 16 N. Carroll Street, Suite 900, Madison, WI 53703, USA
Accepted: 18 August 2017
Context. Observations of relaxed, massive, and distant clusters can provide important tests of standard cosmological models, for example by using the gas mass fraction. To perform this test, the dynamical state of the cluster and its gas properties have to be investigated. X-ray analyses provide one of the best opportunities to access this information and to determine important properties such as temperature profiles, gas mass, and the total X-ray hydrostatic mass. For the last of these, weak gravitational lensing analyses are complementary independent probes that are essential in order to test whether X-ray masses could be biased.
Aims. We study the very luminous, high redshift (z = 0.902) galaxy cluster Cl J120958.9+495352 using XMM-Newton data. We measure global cluster properties and study the temperature profile and the cooling time to investigate the dynamical status with respect to the presence of a cool core. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) weak lensing data to estimate its total mass and determine the gas mass fraction.
Methods. We perform a spectral analysis using an XMM-Newton observation of 15 ks cleaned exposure time. As the treatment of the background is crucial, we use two different approaches to account for the background emission to verify our results. We account for point spread function effects and deproject our results to estimate the gas mass fraction of the cluster. We measure weak lensing galaxy shapes from mosaic HST imaging and select background galaxies photometrically in combination with imaging data from the William Herschel Telescope.
Results. The X-ray luminosity of Cl J120958.9+495352 in the 0.1–2.4 keV band estimated from our XMM-Newton data is LX = (13.4+1.2−1.0) × 1044 erg/s and thus it is one of the most X-ray luminous clusters known at similarly high redshift. We find clear indications for the presence of a cool core from the temperature profile and the central cooling time, which is very rare at such high redshifts. Based on the weak lensing analysis, we estimate a cluster mass of M500/1014 M⊙ = 4.4+2.2−2.0 (stat.) + 0.6 (sys.) and a gas mass fraction of fgas,2500 = 0.11−0.03+0.06 in good agreement with previous findings for high redshift and local clusters.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: clusters: individual: Cl J120958.9+495352 / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / gravitational lensing: weak
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