Infalling groups and galaxy transformations in the cluster A2142
2 Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
3 Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
4 School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dong-Dae-Mun-Gu, 02455 Seoul, Korea
5 Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 20014 Piikkiö, Finland
6 Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn, Estonia
7 ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, 65122 Pescara, Italy
Accepted: 12 November 2017
Context. Superclusters of galaxies provide dynamical environments for the study of the formation and evolution of structures in the cosmic web from galaxies, to the richest galaxy clusters, and superclusters themselves.
Aims. We study galaxy populations and search for possible merging substructures in the rich galaxy cluster A2142 in the collapsing core of the supercluster SCl A2142, which may give rise to radio and X-ray structures in the cluster, and affect galaxy properties of this cluster.
Methods. We used normal mixture modelling to select substructure of the cluster A2142. We compared alignments of the cluster, its brightest galaxies (hereafter BCGs), subclusters, and supercluster axes. The projected phase space (PPS) diagram and clustercentric distributions are used to analyse the dynamics of the cluster and study the distribution of various galaxy populations in the cluster and subclusters.
Results. We find several infalling galaxy groups and subclusters. The cluster, supercluster, BCGs, and one infalling subcluster are all aligned. Their orientation is correlated with the alignment of the radio and X-ray haloes of the cluster. Galaxy populations in the main cluster and in the outskirts subclusters are different. Galaxies in the centre of the main cluster at the clustercentric distances 0.5 h−1 Mpc (Dc∕Rvir < 0.5, Rvir = 0.9 h−1 Mpc) have older stellar populations (with the median age of 10−11 Gyr) than galaxies at larger clustercentric distances. Star-forming and recently quenched galaxies are located mostly at the clustercentric distances Dc ≈ 1.8 h−1 Mpc, where subclusters fall into the cluster and the properties of galaxies change rapidly. In this region the median age of stellar populations of galaxies is about 2 Gyr. Galaxies in A2142 on average have higher stellar masses, lower star formation rates, and redder colours than galaxies in rich groups. The total mass in infalling groups and subclusters is M ≈ 6 × 1014 h−1 M⊙, that is approximately half of the mass of the cluster. This mass is sufficient for the mass growth of the cluster from redshift z = 0.5 (half-mass epoch) to the present.
Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that the cluster A2142 has formed as a result of past and present mergers and infallen groups, predominantly along the supercluster axis. Mergers cause complex radio and X-ray structure of the cluster and affect the properties of galaxies in the cluster, especially at the boundaries of the cluster in the infall region. Explaining the differences between galaxy populations, mass, and richness of A2142, and other groups and clusters may lead to better insight about the formation and evolution of rich galaxy clusters.
Key words: large-scale structure of Universe / galaxies: groups: general / galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: clusters: individual: A2142
© ESO 2018