Circumstellar environment of the M-type AGB star R Doradus
Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory,
Accepted: 17 January 2018
Context. Our current insights into the circumstellar chemistry of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are largely based on studies of carbon-rich stars and stars with high mass-loss rates.
Aims. In order to expand the current molecular inventory of evolved stars we present a spectral scan of the nearby, oxygen-rich star R Dor, a star with a low mass-loss rate (~2 × 10−7 M⊙ yr−1).
Methods. We carried out a spectral scan in the frequency ranges 159.0–321.5 GHz and 338.5–368.5 GHz (wavelength range 0.8–1.9 mm) using the SEPIA/Band-5 and SHeFI instruments on the APEX telescope and we compare it to previous surveys, including one of the oxygen-rich AGB star IK Tau, which has a high mass-loss rate (~5 ×10−6 M⊙ yr−1).
Results. The spectrum of R Dor is dominated by emission lines of SO2 and the different isotopologues of SiO. We also detect CO, H2O, HCN, CN, PO, PN, SO, and tentatively TiO2, AlO, and NaCl. Sixteen out of approximately 320 spectral features remain unidentified. Among these is a strong but previously unknown maser at 354.2 GHz, which we suggest could pertain to H2SiO, silanone. With the exception of one, none of these unidentified lines are found in a similarly sensitive survey of IK Tau performed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present radiative transfer models for five isotopologues of SiO (28SiO, 29SiO, 30SiO, Si17O, Si18O), providing constraints on their fractional abundance and radial extent. We derive isotopic ratios for C, O, Si, and S and estimate that, based on our results for 17O/18O, R Dor likely had an initial mass in the range 1.3–1.6 M⊙, in agreement with earlier findings based on models of H2O line emission. From the presence of spectral features recurring in many of the measured thermal and maser emission lines we tentatively identify up to five kinematical components in the outflow of R Dor, indicating deviations from a smooth, spherical wind.
Key words: stars: AGB and post-AGB / stars: individual: R Dor / stars: mass-loss / astrochemistry
This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.
The full APEX spectrum of R Doradus is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/615/A8
© ESO 2018