Chemistry in disks
XI. Sulfur-bearing species as tracers of protoplanetary disk physics and chemistry: the DM Tau case
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie,
2 Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstraße 5–13, 81377 Munich, Germany
3 INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
4 LAB, Université de Bordeaux, B18N, Allée Geoffroy, Saint-Hilaire, 50023, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France
5 CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, B18N, Allée Geoffroy, Saint-Hilaire, 50023, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France
6 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
7 IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, 38046 Saint-Martin-d’Hères, France
Accepted: 19 June 2018
Context. Several sulfur-bearing molecules are observed in the interstellar medium and in comets, in strong contrast to protoplanetary disks where only CS, H2CS, and SO have been detected so far.
Aims. We combine observations and chemical models to constrain the sulfur abundances and their sensitivity to physical and chemical conditions in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk.
Methods. We obtained 0.5′′ Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of DM Tau in Bands 4 and 6 in lines of CS, SO, SO2, OCS, CCS, H2CS, and H2S, achieving a ~5 mJy sensitivity. Using the non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium radiative transfer code RADEX and the forward-modeling tool DiskFit, disk-averaged CS column densities and upper limits for the other species were derived.
Results. Only CS was detected with a derived column density of ~2−6 × 1012 cm−2. We report a first tentative detection of SO2 in DM Tau. The upper limits range between ~1011 and 1014 cm−2 for the other S-bearing species. The best-fit chemical model matching these values requires a gas-phase C/O ratio of ≳1 at r ≳ 50−100 au. With chemical modeling we demonstrate that sulfur-bearing species could be robust tracers of the gas-phase C/O ratio, surface reaction rates, grain size and UV intensities.
Conclusions. The lack of detections of a variety of sulfur-bearing molecules in DM Tau other than CS implies a dearth of reactive sulfur in the gas phase, either through efficient freeze-out or because most of the elemental sulfur is in other large species, as found in comets. The inferred high CS/SO and CS/SO2 ratios require a non-solar C/O gas-phase ratio of ≳1, consistent with the recent observations of hydrocarbon rings in DM Tau. The stronger depletion of oxygen-bearing S-species compared to CS is likely linked to the low observed abundances of gaseous water in DM Tau and points to a removal mechanism of oxygen from the gas.
Key words: astrochemistry / protoplanetary disks / radio lines: planetary systems / radio lines: stars / circumstellar matter
© ESO 2018