EDP Sciences
Press Release
Free Access
Issue
A&A
Volume 597, January 2017
Article Number A34
Number of page(s) 12
Section Planets and planetary systems
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527775
Published online 21 December 2016

© ESO, 2016

1. Introduction

Soon after the discovery of the first exoplanets around solar-type stars (Mayor & Queloz 1995; Butler & Marcy 1996; Marcy & Butler 1996) a connection was noted between the metallicity of planet-host stars and the presence of close-in giant planets (Gonzalez 1997). Since then, our techniques to detect planets and to characterise stars have been substantially improved. It is now possible to achieve a precision of 1 m s-1 in radial velocity (RV), increasing our abilities to detect nearby small planets and distant large planets (e.g. Santos et al. 2004; Howard et al. 2011; Bedell et al. 2015). Additionally, a precision of 0.01 dex in chemical abundances has been achieved in solar twins (e.g. Bedell et al. 2014; Meléndez et al. 2014a; Ramírez et al. 2014; Tucci Maia et al. 2014; Nissen 2015). This is to be compared with a precision of ~10 m s-1 for the first planet detections (Mayor & Queloz 1995; Butler & Marcy 1996; Marcy & Butler 1996) and errors of 0.08–0.09 dex in iron abundances of the first planet hosts (Gonzalez 1997).

Aiming to explore the planet-star connection more thoroughly, we are exploiting the synergy between precise chemical abundances that can be achieved in solar twins (0.01 dex) and precise planet characterisation that can be achieved with HARPS (1 m s-1) through an on-going survey of planets around solar twins. Our sample was presented in Ramírez et al. (2014), where we determined stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]), ages, masses, and stellar activity. Slightly improved ages and the [Y/Mg]-age relation were published in Tucci Maia et al. (2016). Our HARPS data have previously been used to obtain stringent constraints on planets around two important solar twins, 18 Sco, which is the brightest solar twin and is younger than the Sun (Meléndez et al. 2014a), and HIP 102152, an old solar twin with a low lithium content (Monroe et al. 2013). Our HARPS data were also used to study the rotation-age relation, showing that our Sun is a regular rotator (dos Santos et al. 2016).

The first planet detected in our HARPS survey is a Jupiter twin around the solar twin HIP 11915, a planet with about the mass of Jupiter and at about the same distance as the distance of Jupiter from the Sun (Bedell et al. 2015). Interestingly, the planet host star has the same volatile-to-refractory ratio as in the Sun, suggesting that in addition to being a Jupiter twin, it may host rocky planets, according to the hypothesis put forward by Meléndez et al. (2009).

In this paper we present the second and third planets discovered from our dedicated solar twin planet search. The evidence for the outer planet seems solid, but the inner planet is less well constrained. We discuss how the planet architecture may be related to the chemical abundance pattern.

2. Planet detection

2.1. Data

HIP 68468 was observed with the HARPS spectrograph (Mayor et al. 2003) on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory during 43 nights between 2012–2016 (the star was observed twice in two nights, resulting in 45 data points). These observations were carried out under our large program targeting 63 solar twin stars (program ID 188.C-0265). Each night’s observation consisted of one 1300-s exposure for this V = 9.4 star. This exposure time is long enough to average out p-mode stellar oscillations typical of solar-like stars, and to achieve a photon-limited precision of 1 m s-1 in typical observing conditions. On two of the observing nights, two 1300-s exposures were taken with a two-hour time gap between them. In total, we obtained 45 RV measurements for the star.

All HARPS data were processed with version 3.8 of the dedicated HARPS pipeline, which determines radial velocities through a cross-correlation technique using a G2 binary mask. Uncertainties on the RVs came from the pipeline estimation, which accounts for photon noise in the cross-correlation. An additional 1 m s-1 was added in quadrature to account for the instrumental noise floor (Dumusque et al. 2011). The Ca II H&K spectral lines were measured by us, and the resulting SHK activity indices were converted into the standard Mount Wilson log () index using the relation derived by Lovis et al. (2011).

The HARPS instrument underwent an upgrade in June 2015 that included the installation of new fibers and instrumental re-focusing. This upgrade altered the instrumental profile and introduced offsets in the measured RVs relative to the pre-upgrade RV zero point. We used the data for a set of ten stars in our program with relatively constant pre-upgrade RV time series (RMS < 2 m s-1) to characterise the offset. Although this offset is expected to have a dependence on stellar type, all stars in our program are solar twins and should therefore share the same offset. We find an offset of 15.4 ± 0.2 m s-1 among the constant solar twin sample. This value agrees with those obtained by the HARPS team using RV standard stars (Lo Curto et al. 2015). To properly account for the effect of the upgrade and its uncertainty, we include the RV offset as a free parameter in the model as described below.

All HARPS RVs and relevant activity indices are given in Table B.2.

2.2. Analysis and results

We identified candidate planet periods using a generalised Lomb-Scargle periodogram (Zechmeister & Kürster 2009). For this initial analysis, we subtracted a 15.4 m s-1 offset from the data taken after the HARPS upgrade. Leaving aside the 1.0 and 0.5-day peaks that commonly arise from a nightly sampling cadence, the strongest periodicity in the data is at 194 days (Fig. 1). To calculate its false-alarm probability (FAP), or the probability that such a high-power peak could appear through random noise, we used a bootstrap Monte Carlo technique. The data were bootstrap sampled for 5000 trials, with the power of the highest peak recorded for each trial. The 90th and 99th percentiles of the resulting power distribution can be used as approximate 10% and 1% FAP thresholds. For the 194 day peak, we find that only 0.8% of the trials yielded a peak of equal or greater height by chance. The analytic FAP, using the formulation of Zechmeister & Kürster (2009), is even lower at 0.2%. Although 194 days is somewhat close to half a year and the associated window function peak at 171 days, the phase coverage of the signal is nonetheless sufficient to reliably fit a Keplerian. No combination of significant periodicities from the window function and the data would feasibly combine to produce an alias peak at a 194-day period (Dawson & Fabrycky 2010).

thumbnail Fig. 1

Generalised Lomb Scargle (GLS) periodograms to determine the frequencies of planet candidates. Top panel is a periodogram of the original data with instrumental upgrade offset removed. Middle panels are periodograms of the residuals to a 194-day Keplerian fit (upper middle) and a two-planet fit (lower middle). The horizontal lines represent false-alarm probability levels of 10% (dashed) and 1% (dotted), as calculated from a bootstrap Monte Carlo method. Also included for comparison is the window function of the sampling (bottom panel).

Open with DEXTER

We modelled and removed the 194 day signal using a least-squares algorithm to simultaneously fit the Keplerian orbital parameters and the RV offset introduced by the HARPS upgrade (δinst). The periodogram of the residuals to this fit showed a peak at 1.84 days with a bootstrap FAP of 2%. Adding a Keplerian with a 1.84-day period to the least-squares model fit yielded a two-planet solution which substantially reduced the residuals of the one-planet fit. Further observations need to be gathered to better constrain the inner planet, as an alternative solution with a period of ~2.3 days seems to exist.

After removing both 194-day and 1.84-day signals, no significant peaks remained in the residuals periodogram (Fig. 1).

We ran a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis using the specific implementation of Bedell et al. (2015) to obtain final confidence intervals on the two planet candidate orbits, properly marginalising over all uncertain parameters. Our model consisted of two Keplerian signals, a constant RV offset C relative to the instrumental zero point, an instrumental offset δinst for post-HARPS upgrade RVs, and a jitter term σJ. The Keplerian signal was parameterised as (P, K, e, ω + M0, ωM0), where P is the orbital period, K is the RV semi-amplitude, e is eccentricity, ω is the argument of periastron, and M0 is the mean anomaly at a reference date set by the first RV measurement in the time series. All of the fit parameters were given uniform priors except for P and K, which were sampled in log-space with a log-uniform prior, and δinst, which was given a Gaussian prior with the mean and uncertainty as given in Sect. 2.1. After the MCMC run concluded<5iors5iors5i ag1) radial vit. r g1_smalla7eets and237;rez et style="/aa27775 ymb0265).talsf="ss="snyradial vs yiehaRVs nctthe uckiter and migrihool usga/full_escribed bior, ant. rusing a n, which aower ihref="/articles/3a/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015 ). The idualles/aa/full_/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#T4">B.2.

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We modelled and removed the>

<9/full_htr> ' offg277t sneousl)Carlo tecen uainedanticles/aaIP 6iin striaworkon_htmarticles/14"full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015The HARt planet;f="/articles/a0/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015Meléndez et al. 2010/f.

In thispa12a hr,="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2014a< an old s,htmarticles/a2/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R46">Mayor et al. 2003) a2/fba hr;="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2013/fMayor et al. 2003) 62/f>; pectra, 09 di ch, an8468c share /aaIr> Dawson & Fabrycky 28">Baumann>In this pa10)ence h">Mayor et al. 2003) 1a/fCaimffssH&PS instrum, apal HARPS RVll_ fit t.p archtlsntwith1ts aR42">eriansotis2053">Dawson & Fabrycky 218/fCharb3"f t a>, isTalon 0red w;="/aarticles/24"full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015Lo Curto et al. 2015, isDesamne09anet;f="/articles/23"full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 20150a hri,eMormparaactory enrful. r Open with DEXTER

We modelled and removed theTheh± 0.03 dex, which is four times 3Hrac)yta m appxpected(fIP 6d be cla6Hrac)yiclesbe on stesoli (FA g"n_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2013/fMeléndez et al. 20a2/f/a>), and HIP 102152, an ba hr;="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2014"f for p>The HARt planet)ose obt ansithes/aafull_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#F1">1).

We ran a9/f9nclud ath">< also sups4 de refract/tablefore share th4 m&ph /aaIP 6iin striaworkon_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2062/f>; pectr;="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2010/f.

In thispa12a hr,="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2014a< an old s,html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R46">Mayor et al. 2003) a2/fba hr;="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2013/fLo Curto et al. 2015The HARt planet;f="/l/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015 style for by_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R84">Zechmeister & Kü">Baumann>In this pa10)ence,mple-ptof ch, anelUnith Mour tim67d ath">Zechmeister & Kûa/fCaimffssH&PS instrum.mpled8468c share /aaMour tim67s 000 selon ste e HARPSirc/a>tt">18468c sh4 ogs (/full_1 to naks n ylei>P is the orbital log <=line">P is the orbital log δinst<=line"><1.0math">± 0.03 dex, which is four times1δinst1.25 (i>δinst. The Ke = 0.35ses, an ax), on thahetscaanernbetyle uouionflyoint, ant. Ramírez et al. (201a/fCaimffssH&PS instrum.mNeunt ly fitertleduennsLspan class=t anst data int, esLTE_Mayor et al. 2003) a7dex,214;nehagInR78">pectraatertha booath">18s [YlyeuiKele nd ncemobs (Meléndez et al. 202">Baumann>In this/a>0a hr;="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2014"f for p>The HARt planet)sthe det and Ttion of t and ste also sups ('Dawson & Fabrycky 218/fCharb3"f t a>, isTalon 0red w;="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015Lo Curto et al. 2015, isDesamne09anet;f="/l/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 20150a hri,eaansithes/aafull_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#F1">1).

We ran a9/f9nclu. L053"> We fsimpsnhass=d_2053">1 also sups4 d ashedlyeuupointt.phpnplepolan claf="/al/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2014"f for p>The HARPS i6stell r typelsntion,np th periods usnstaey impter asnhass=d_2053"> 1).

We ran a9/f9nclu)tss="sto beie pahawell ycmaycr typb stepolan -plInR2053"> <' offg27y/aafull_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#F1">1).

We ran a9/f9nclu)o tected in oreid anf and8a impter asnhass=d_2053">).1).

We ran a9/f9nclue( the HARP, HD 38/p>, HD 96423,s16 Cyg Aaatedopctyler binomipleuipproximate (seeVhref=/full_4.4s/aahtmarticles/63"full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015; 2a hri,e="s abo U numbth"> to bei Jupi1amath">± 0.03 dex, which is four tim2%ls sful-likea8a impmaycr typvisiof 1et 2. Planet detection<12/full_4. Diectur arname="S in ousresen sd">1r tiich mfor thh">1).

We ran a7">7tell (-plane of t)Carlsith1thatnbits class="sepaanere tis also supl(bizero point, anful)thAP tl a G2 binarywi6 Aonerensbinary mmsersm aroTeff, log onerservclass="si).mpledfacctis[X/H] v&per>Teff, log onerservclass="sin ane sresenin cbytad846idm proose obtcerG2 binaryta s howsefis , on thtlin the restscxpectedicles5i>σJ. The Kepl was r planentriguthe sntrigu scaanernstar iaboufaccjores 17arac,tr twin anxpectediclesahet etheles5ved in sdex instis0. s2arac,ts wellobt anlikelyeuupointahetscaanerninproone-plbytgal agecrc be achievpan claC(GCEi,eapal HARPS RVll_ion,npaworkon_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 201s to be compared w;f="/articles/74"full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015Zechmeister & K)4"fSpinRPS data PS i6stell styleefore shareergy 10% emical ni chGCEhts unco,er twinenfullspe,loiti aspend Ttion of tint, anful,tr twin ani>Teffaved in slrbinas emical actory enrful () index using85the relg src="/artilabeling">(nstrb Scargb Scaath">15tml/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 20151).

We ran a7">7tell.mIert /a pla and iintriguc on thuiKele nd Ia hrm&# 000 we [Yt etheledlaithm torawe [Y class nd HAeMeléndez et al. 20)4"fSpinRPS data t planet ss="sion- naks n yleahetex intsnsuffistictis also supr A c"InR can,e="s typ achiex intbarrencraabste e HA0. s2aracoint0. s4aracose ed[X/H]sup>-1) to charabtGCEpan class="si &binas tywe ith1e,xpectedmpfraccoryasnhass=rigu h">Teff, log onerservclass="si, ataeter1% (dctis6i>σJ. The Kepl was r planscaanernstar iaboufaccjortywe0. s4arac,h perioba 1toe="s typ achiex intbarrene="s [X/H]sup>-1) to charabtGCEpan class="si &binaso tected in ouer pe-/aatiich mfor th to beisym rbinary e HAaaaIPing aoclass nnesiTeffDawson & Fabrycky 268/fSavequa>tt102152,ne02ed with aets01er-E01/hso sugenter r beer typuetal actmaycsion-urllth1thondfbia,eapaaccjor ababooortuR lyoes 3HAUy e HA also supr Iis also supbts0rvicli,simvsureli>we of andl 8adayactw"ste also supsevpavdand theabouiodo stes. Lo Curto et al. 2015Asplont 102152,ne09anet;f="/l/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015aab"vwooincraabsyt oulth1photospigrecrhtml/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R21">Dawson & Fabrycky 268/fSavequa>tt102152,ine02)ence,mctuas for thm rbinarysn,niMayor et al. 2003) 77/fTogf tli>The HARt planet;f="/articles/5a/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R25">dos Santos et al. 2016<5a/fMurra a>, isChstayhe ne02ed w;f="/articles/54"full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015, isRebolo,ne02ed withtected iUy Mayor et al. 2003) 17/fChsmbth"> pa10)ence h">Dawson & Fabrycky 23a/fG 10%zRPS data PS i6bstell.mWndtar lds-p tl anval eV ulcem tis0. s8mi>M0 is the mean x,885hich were conv," style thidrackshref="/articles/7a/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R21">Dawson & Fabrycky 27a/fSrm&p>The HARPS 00)tell.mIerFull_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#F1">1).

We ran a10">>0a hr,Carlsith1thed[X/H]sup>-1) to charabtGCEpan class="si &binas refracteirc277ass="simpss unceuupointahethccrathatatis6rE01/hsncemobstis&ockyplcnalipleson l enrcnnval ehn z="sdtis also suplrefbnedso offg277th aetbbei faccjoretst se>1rccrathat; (ii)classlass="siLi_dt RVsihn stydetect for thhccrathat; (iii)classss iid=1&y tis enrmoha pron n8a d) anisola7eedt RVsihn tisLi_ion ofbauupointahetmfor thengulfl of f="/articles/7a/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R46">Mayor et al. 2003) 7a/fTh>. , isVau2a hri. nd texref="lai suffaro/a tytt.praedt RVsihn ion ofbauupointahermoha pronmix yl,e="stewour n pahawell mfor thhccrathatasv nd ce of r typoccurractw"stelassla"siha>δinst1mfor thhccrathata clati the 1.4rarac d t0.9 axto m&#spondorward ngobstisstar i3 d t6lGyres&#spal eV ti.me obtmeao"oihatni suffrmoha pronmix yl/iold Hysss iid=1t,edt RVsiyl/Lspi">avar i1 axtot"stelassmfor thhccrathatasv nd occurraction,np to tected iIfthccrathatatismfor taryplcnalipleoccurractll_ion,npad be tot"stedebrimpmaycreiodo arous="simpla"sth aetlth1ninline">) index using the relation da ages an plaexItis also suplaoislchty nme strili>anomaltriasoli (FA g"ngroup,ym [Yt/aai01/tHIPdupointabsorpsihn bytdust ary sysass=mospigrecrCa IIa probsst data int, ests unce eeryterWASP-12sf="/articles/3a/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R25">dos Santos et al. 2016<3a/fHasw how H&K s2ed w;f="/articles/29/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R25">dos Santos et al. 2016<29/fFossbinI H&K s3kov chaFuy the mered to besoili>R' We fe seals,npiter a sysithitles5n lth1ninline">) index using the relation do tected ihtml/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R51">Meléndez et al. 2049/f.

In this pa09)ence h">Dawson & Fabrycky 26a/f/a>, where we determine09)ence hrgue pahawell rful/is/dt iid=1ttll_iofraccoryasntriguc bizero point, anmajoaand efore shareer ashedlyebte elems suffis cu/aa/full_nerstarliplemfor t"oary syslfore sylasl. MnARP8fore share try ath"> We finhass=d_ll_iofraccoryasntriguc bizero point, anfult s appa H sys8468c dence also supr Hth vhe,hid must b clarhe e pahawell rmpfraccoryasnhass=rigu tismnARP8fore share maycbmeofimWediplerunlikeaen ucalems s also suplaoih">< iv class="inset"><10/full_htr> -1) to charabtGCEpan class="si te also supsmodel >bottom panbserensbinary mmsersm aro(racteirc277ith aetan class= id anemical actur pgal agecrc be achievpan claCory enrful (.

In thisne09anet t ansithes/i>, anucalcu" pro. r Open with DEXTER

We modelled and roved t4>2. Planet detection<1a/full_5. Coli>Teff, log onerservclass="sicjorbione-pth aetl053">Methodssef abouhnARP8a i,rasnmered eecd 99 thso suplass="do ay thl of on thahetpracici1;ss i>html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R21">Dawson & Fabrycky 268/fSavequa>tt102152,ine02)enceo tected in ouion,npauiscovheisolay 8a impsith ylec be achienomalisol>MesiofydG2 biactorymfor thengulfl of episodeon_htmarticles/4"full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015Ashw how H&K 0red w;="/aarticles/7a/full_html/2017/01/aa27775-15/aa27775-15.html#R42">Lo Curto et al. 2015 dos Santos et al. 2016<59/fPepeInR78">pectraatTass no ogu/p> eviden sd">1mfor thhccrathatainolasss cusef abouinhass=d_iofraccoryasntrigus5n l053">

whodmad f="InR4>Mesiof".mpll kc sion-eofCaroll_Hasw howMg] D0% Staabcd 99use5/aauisctur ar. J.M.hhcknowledgeans01;(
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s, 3rd edn. (Cambridti,lUK: Cambridti Univers an Prhe )>
TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
2ApJ...760...79H/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/760/1/79">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 35r, L27>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/726/2/73">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isRavingyerE.oA. 1995, Jp;Amer.oSg tr A soc., 90, 773>
[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmiv cdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/applwww.amsp;DOI>[MTeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="31-8949/1993/T47/030/f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isBarklem,sP. S.sne09,uAa>, iA, 503, 541>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isHili,nbrant, L. A. /a08,uApJ, 687,u1264>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar86/591785/f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isQueloz, D. 1995, Natura, 378, 35r>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar38/37835ra0/f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
4,u20>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isButlirtoR. P. 1996,uApJ, 464,uL147>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar86/310096">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isBadn ho, N. R>, iA, 469,u1203>
, isYong, D. ne09,uApJ, 704,uL66>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/704/1/L66">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 543,uA29>
4ApJ...791...14M/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/791/1/14"f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 567,uL3>
3ApJ...774L..32M/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t2041-8205/774/2/L32">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isRebolo, R>, iA, 386, 1039>
, isChaboyirtoB>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar86/338079">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 579,uA52>
, isV2">enberg, D. A.p,uAa>, iA, 528,uA85>
, iA, 579,uA53>
, iA, 534,uA58>
, isLsmbtht, D. L. /a07,uAa>, iA, 46r,u271>
, isFisherJ. RARt pp,uApJ, 740, 76>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/740/2/76">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isChaectéerJ. t p2,uApJ, 757,u164>
2ApJ...757..164R/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/757/2/164"f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isLsmbtht, D. L. /ap3,uApJ, 764, 78>
3ApJ...764...78R/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/764/1/78"f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 572,uA48>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/808/1/13">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isBerringtontoK. A. /a0p,uAtom. Data Nucl. Data Tablefto77,u87>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar0675dnd./a00.0847"f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isMtrd=/pg, R>2>
2S/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar86/340452">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 426, L19>
, isZhao, G.Rt p4,uApJ, 782, 80>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/782/2/80">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 582, L6>
, isRamírez, I.;K 16,uAa>, iA, 58r,uA152>
, isRamírez, I.;K 16,uApJ, 819,u19>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" t3847/0"DEXTE7X/819/1/19">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isVau>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/744/2/123">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isDegl’Innocenti, S.snep6,uMNRAS, 460, 3888>
6MNRAS.460.3888T/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar93/mnras/stw1268"f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isRamírez, I.;K 14,uApJ, 790, L2r>
4ApJ...790L..25T/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t2041-8205/790/2/L2r"f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 590, A32>
, isDeng, L.sne09,uMNRAS, 395, /a>3>
3X/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" taaaa/j.1365-2966./a09.14581.x"f[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" tar88t="DEXTE7X/802/1/36">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, isForderE.oBARt pp,uMNRAS, 410, 189r>
1MNRAS.4" ta89rZ/aerdracc">[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
[NASA ADS]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmiv cdethumbnail=/pk_pdf_"inces.org/asppldoip;DOI" taa03/PhysRevA.79.052709">[CrMesRee]ull_d and remmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmd and remmmmmmmmmmr>TeZ3988"thitlicl"f>
, iA, 496,u577>
iv c>
esec"f>detectionapp/full_Appendix A: NLTE corrections for Mg 2"> Cadp>Our Mg 2"> Ca atom models for NLTE calculations are unpublishederalthough our Mg model is somewhat similar to_ fitMg 2tom model recently published bycdetnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/58"fOsorio H&(ne15)ull_. A brief description of our Mg 2"> Ca models is given below. Radiative data were downloaded from fitKurucz (detnces.org/applwww.pmp.uni-hannover.de/cgi-bin/ssi/test/kurucz/sekur alt="thumbnail_blank">rg/applwww.pmp.uni-hannover.de/cgi-bin/ssi/test/kurucz/sekur alt=ull_) 2"> TOPbase (detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/20/fCunto_a>, isMendoza 1992ull_) web intirfa&as in July ne>1. When necessary, fit2toms were supplemented with hydrogenic data. The TOPbase cesere1&a for Mg I is detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/13">Butlir H&(1993)ull_, for Mg II it is “K.oT.oTaylor, to_be published”, for CaI 2"> CaII it is “H. Ep;Saraph_a>, isP. J. Storey, to_be published”. We included 220 energy levels for Mg, complete up to_r>Tesimple-math/fui>n = 80dss="si for Mg I 2"> up to_r>Tesimple-math/fui>n = 10dss="si for Mg II. Fine structure is resolve> up to_r>Tesimple-math/fui>l ≤ 3dss="si (r>Tesimple-math/fui>s,p,d,fdss="si) 2"> r>Tesimple-math/fui>n ≤ 19dss="si in Mg I;_r>Tesimple-math/fui>n = 20dss="si–80 are collapse> supir levels.sFor Ca we included 256 energy levels, with identical coveragit2s for Mg.sFor Mg 2"> Ca,u1390 2"> 1961 b-b radiative transitions were included, respectively;_r>Tesimple-math/fui>fdss="si-values are taken from TOPbase pcesere1tially, o firwise from fitKurucz database. Collisional broadening due to_collisions with neutral H is based ol_ fitABO_ fiory (detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/1">Anstie_a>, isO’Mara 1995ull_;cdetnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/5">Barklem_a>, isO’Mara 1997ull_;cdetnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/6">Barklem_ H&1998ull_) when pMesible (r>Tesimple-math/f~dss="si15 =/pes for eacht2tom). Stark broadening is neglected.uPhotoionisation crMes-sections are from TOPbase for both ionisation stagis.sElectron excitation 2"> ionisation were taken from detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/19">Cox;(ne00)ull_. CrMes-sections for forbidden transitions were computed subuming r>Tesimple-math/fui>f = 0.5dss="si, 2"> when available repla&ad with detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/83"fZatsarinny H&(ne09)ull_ for Mg 2"> detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/67"_Samson a>, isBerrington;(ne01)ull_ 2"> detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/48"fMelé>

7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/39">Lsmbtht;1993ull_), 2"> repla&ad with detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/7">Barklem_ H&(ne12)ull_ when available for Mg.s

>
esec"f>detectionapp/full_Appendix B: Additional tablefdp>>
einset"_eligne"f>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaT3 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Table B.1dss="siull_

Difsere1tial abu"><1&as of HIP 68468 relative to_ fitSun 2"> errors.

>
ss
dp>>
einset"_eligne"f>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaT4 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Table B.2dss="siull_

HARPS measured radial velocities a"> activ an indices for HIP 68468.

>
ss
lass>esec"f>detectiontabs/full_All Tablefddivi>einset"_eligne"f>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaT1 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Table 1dss="siull_

Best-fit parameters a"> u1&artainties for HIP68468 b a"> c.

>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#T1">Il_ fit t.pull_
ddivi>einset"_eligne"f>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaT2 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Table 2dss="siull_

Comparison of RV models.

>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#T2">Il_ fit t.pull_
ddivi>einset"_eligne"f>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaT3 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Table B.1dss="siull_

Difsere1tial abu"><1&as of HIP 68468 relative to_ fitSun 2"> errors.

>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#T3">Il_ fit t.pull_
ddivi>einset"_eligne"f>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaT4 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Table B.2dss="siull_

HARPS measured radial velocities a"> activ an indices for HIP 68468.

>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#T4">Il_ fit t.pull_
dh2i>esec"f>detectionfigs/full_All Figurefddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF1 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig1_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF1 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 1dss="siull_

Generalised Lomb Scumble (GLS) periodograms to_determine fitfrequencias of plan H&candidatis.sui>Top panel is a periodogram of fitoriginal data with instrumental upgraditoffset removed.uui>Middle panels are periodograms of fitrefiduals to_a 194-day Kepleriuppir middle) 2"> a two-plan H&fit (ui>lowir middle). The horizontal =/pes reprefent false-alarm probabil an levels of 10% (dashed) 2"> 1% (dotted), 2s calculated from a bootrdrap Monte Carlo method.uAlso included for comparison is fitwindow fu1&tion of fits>, =/pg (ui>bottom panel).

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F1">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF2 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig2_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF2 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 2dss="siull_

Full timitserias of RV data (blue) 2"> two-plan H&best-fit model. The ui>two lowir panels show zoomed-in subsets of fittimitserias. The black =/pe is fitbest-fit model from a least-squares&fit. The grey =/pes are models r2">omly drawn from fitone-sigma r2"gitoftbest steps in fitMCMC aeclysis. As illurdrated bycthe grey models, fiteccentric an of fitinnir plan H&is not well constrained.

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F2">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF3 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig3_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF3 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 3dss="siull_

Phase-folded RV data for fit wo Kepleriuppir panels show fitRV data with fito fir plan H&2"> offsets removed.uOur final MCMC solution is overplotted, with refiduals in ui>tfitlowir panels. Grey points are du =/cated observations plotted for clar an.

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F3">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF4 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig4_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF4 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 4dss="siull_

GLS periodograms of fitRV data 2"> var ous activ an indicators for comparison. Horizontal =/pes correspo"> to false-alarm probabil aias of 10% (dashed) 2"> 1% (dotted), 2s calculated from bootrdrap Monte Carlo res>, =/pg.

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F4">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF5 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig5_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF5 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 5dss="siull_

Postirior dirdributions of orbital period, radial velocitytsemi->, =/tude, 2"> eccentric an for fit wo plan H&candidatis.

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F5">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF6 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig6_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF6 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 6dss="siull_

Age probabil an dirdribution of HIP 68468. The dark 2"> light areas correspo"> to 1r>Tesimple-math/fui>σdss="si 2"> 2r>Tesimple-math/fui>σdss="si confidence.s

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F6">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF7 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig7_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF7 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 7dss="siull_

ui>Uppirdi> panel: observed sbu"><1&a pattern of HIP 68468 versus condensation tempirature before GCE corrections. The solid =/pe is a&fit taking into_account_ fit otal error bars. It has aisigeifica1&a of 5.4r>Tesimple-math/fui>σdss="si, 2"> fitelement-to-element scatter from fitfit is 0.e>7 dt., which is lumbnr fal_ fitaveragiterror bar (0.e>2 dt.).uui>Lowir panel: sbu"><1&a pattern after GCE corrections to_ fitsolar agi. The error barsralso include fiterror of fitGCE corrections, 2"> has antaveragitof 0.e>4 dt.. The correlation with condensation tempirature is now stronbnr 2"> more sigeifica1t (6.0r>Tesimple-math/fui>σdss="si), 2"> fitelement-to-element scatter about fitfit (0.e>4 dt.) is in perfect agreement with fitaveragiterror bar.s

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F7">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF8 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig8_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF8 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 8dss="siull_

Lithium feature il_ fitHARPS spectrum of HIP 68468 (open cira277) 2"> syn fi/aa spectrum with <1&a of 1.47 dt. (solid =/pe), correspo">ing to_an NLTE sbu"><1&a of r>Tesimple-math/fui>Adss="si(Li) = 1.51 dt.. A var ation of r>Tesimple-math/f±dss="si0.e4 dt. il_ fitLi sbu"><1&a is shown bycdashed =/pes. The var ations seen il_ fit=/pe profile are mostly consistint with fitnoise il_ fis region (r>Tesimple-math/fui>S/ui>N ~ 500dss="si), but couldralso be due to_dirdinct convectivet=/pe shifts between difsere1t specias.

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F8">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF9 alt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig9_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF9 alt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 9dss="siull_

Lithium abu"><1&as versus agi. The Li sbu"><1&a of HIP 68468 was determined il_ fis work.sFor fitfieldrsolar twins (cira277, tri7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/14/fCarlosu H&K 16ull_;cdetectionInR30/full_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/30/fGalarzau H&K 16aull_;cdetnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/50"fMelé>

7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/51">ne>4aull_,detectionInR52/full_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/52/fbull_;cdetnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/53"fMonroe H&ne13ull_;cdetectionInR62/full_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/62/fRamír

for fitsolar twins il_open clurders (pentagons) wit2dopted the values given il_detectionInR8/full_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/8">Baumann_ H&(ne10)ull_ 2"> detectionInR16/full_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/16/fCastro_ H&(ne11)ull_, as described il_ fit t.p. We also show non-st2">7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/18/fCharbonnel a>, isTalon 2005ull_;cdetectionInR24/full_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/24/fdo Na_idmento H&K 09ull_;cdetectionInR80/full_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/80/fXiongoa>, isDeng;K 09ull_;cdetectionInR23/full_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/23/fDenissenkov;ne10ull_), normalised to_ fitSun.

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F9">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef
ddivi>einset"_dtrf>dtd valign="middle"_7/01/5-27775s SaF" talt="thumbnail_blank">rimgraltonthumbnail" src.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S-fig10_small.jpg/full_dtd >eimg-txt"_>detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s SaF1 talt="thumbnail_blank">r>Tebold">Fig. 10dss="siull_

Observed sbu"><1&a ratios [X/H]r>Tesimple-math/fusub>GCEdssub>dss="si in HIP 68468 as aifu1&tion of condensation tempirature (red cira277). The abu"><1&as are corrected for galac/aa chemical evolution to_ fitSun’s agi. Plan H&engulfment of 6 E=1/h msubas of rocky mstirial (blue tri<1&a tre1d of 11tsolar twins relative to_ fitSun (detnces.oI=1/aa27775-1full_alt=/ne>7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#/49"fMelé>

>d/trf>dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"_, iDOI=" tar51t="DEXTE61/ne1527775"thumbnailDEXTER">Open with DEXTERull_dtr>dtd >ols="s="2"i>ein-txt"_7/01/5-27775s Santo7775s S alt=#F10">Il_ fit t.pull_d/tablef

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