EDP Sciences
Free Access
Issue
A&A
Volume 607, November 2017
Article Number A37
Number of page(s) 15
Section Extragalactic astronomy
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201731190
Published online 03 November 2017

© ESO, 2017

1. Introduction

It is now commonly accepted that the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are surrounded by a parsec-scale optically thick equatorial distribution of dust. Antonucci & Miller (1985) found a Seyfert-I spectrum with broad emission lines, in the polarized optical light of the Seyfert-II galaxy NGC 1068, indicating that a Seyfert-I nucleus exists in all Seyfert-II AGN. The observational characteristics of Seyfert-IIs are in fact hidden from direct view by optically thick material. Radiation form the central engine is scattered onto the AGN polar outflows, resulting in the observed near-ultraviolet, optical and, near-infrared polarization properties. The idea of a common origin for emission lines for Seyfert-I and 2 galaxies, broad- and narrow-line radio galaxies, and quasars is supported by Shuder (1981). He found that Hα and other optical emission lines appear to correlate over a range of seven orders of magnitude with the continuum radiation. Subsequent recombinations that affect the emission lines might be uniform for almost all classes of AGN, but the presence of this hardly resolved dusty component is responsible for the observed orientation-dependent properties (Antonucci 1993; Urry & Padovani 1995).

Fortunately, the outskirts of the equatorial dusty medium of AGN start to be revealed thanks to the highest possible spatial resolution offered by interferometry. Recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) results showed that it is now possible to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 μm continuum emission from the nucleus of NGC 1068 (García-Burillo et al. 2016; Gallimore et al. 2016). In the mid-infrared, Jaffe et al. (2004) spatially resolved a parsec-sized torus-shaped distribution of dust grains in the same galaxy, where a small hot structure is embedded in a colder (320 K) dusty cocoon extending up to 3.4 pc in diameter. Further flux-limited interferometric studies of nearby quasars, using the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI; see, e.g., Tristram et al. 2007; Burtscher et al. 2009, 2013; Tristram et al. 2014) or the Keck interferometer (Swain et al. 2003; Kishimoto et al. 2009a), definitively confirmed the existence of the dusty torus, if with large differences within the sample.

The morphology of this region is a poorly constrained parameter of this multifaceted problem. The formation and hydrodynamic stability of a parsec-scale dust reservoir are not trivially explained by a homogeneous distribution of dust in a uniform toroidal arrangement. Detailed spatial studies revealed subtle problems with regard to smooth tori. Using Spitzer data, Sturm et al. (2006), Hao et al. (2007), Mason et al. (2009), and Nikutta et al. (2009) investigated the 10 μm silicate feature in a large sample of AGN. They found that the occasional detection of the feature in emission in Seyfert-II AGN, together with the absence of any deeply absorbed features in Seyfert-Is, might rule out smooth density torus models. To suppress the emission feature, clumpiness is invoked (Nenkova et al. 2002, 2008a,b; Hönig et al. 2006; Schartmann et al. 2008; Stalevski et al. 2012). It is also a simple and elegant way to allow for the dust to survive the expected local temperatures. Krolik & Begelman (1988) postulated that the circumnuclear dusty material is likely clumpy, filled with a large number of individually optically thick clouds. Cloud merging and tidal shearing ensure a mixed environment that efficiently 7/aakshe equator alh0="InR69">m ,b; Stalevski et al. 2012). It is also a simple and elegant way Sarblervat that ilocal tus Seyf ry mayhanka Teleeadhe coess the emissidegree and ow fo tori dme="Inions in a set of warped and non-warped cl(/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R68">2008a,umagerth">&#possi thaaturor albed featuds. We me="InR23"

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    Stalevski et al. 2012-fig13_ cold.jpgl/2017/ Stalevski et alF"3b/a>re Lefton lii>aprnelson l:aion thatf="/articles/(5000 Å)ye="InR23"hrizdedauthoref polaednve /11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; m silicate feature Ron lierbehey uperbe = 0.5ines apppcdata-url="/pan>m silicate feature in a2;on lierbehey uperbe = 10°old">Ac=he ssownh(blahe,ere r68, ipdnelson l). litye0- Thearticlesat-IJud’s>iustingture tery o duile"a0 fo n">tityasilyl/terclicle-interd fo>daachieveia 22–23%iv EDP Sciences databaseOpanswSpitDEXTER2017/ t/id="te">
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    Stalevski et al. 2012-fig14_ cold.jpgl/2017/ Stalevski et alF"4b/a>Sure terFig e/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R3">Antonucci & Miller (1985)">da there eprescorpve shntudiednve raga.les//aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R86">Sturm et al. (2006), 4f="/pan cl/ EDP Sciences databaseOpanswSpitDEXTER2017/ t/id="te">
    < >t eaipreditw bofvednpe nA( 7/10-17.htaet 'aa/f-sup0" o ">es)ntical ahrizdedhin tdal-uldeduSpitaoJudlauthor(Fig e/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R3">Antonucci & Miller (1985)daoed hrizdedhiy-asilyl(Fig e/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R3">Antonucci & Miller (1985)atflorm theoarticlffeal ahrizdedt0 K) dusy T AG p (A torkarpeatsletormaFig e/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R3">Antonucci & Miller (1985)iustiis tart polatvi polas tart"r< ga coaa nAGN startsystemsolvedhpslng pos (da witgeo LarylN sR23"hin t: 1) tart polate="In/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; c polshapho(e.g.cla spheaitcved ), ct usrustinghrizdedhin td polate="In whe h(prathbers-ao>vexlshaphoimpal aexner p (Aationst(ontellion thatcrosteli> ,bes//aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R68">2008a,he 7nt wa;t SnR2)II AGhid hurmatinghrizdedauthoreanks te="In/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; iustwicsttw y thetery otart polate="In whe h(pray litychth thinrmorphologzu1nhaickustingtemergearpedinbvoir a-in)elocl eaJudlasilyl">ut2%),>thiusesnuefoftur">daoties rped cy lieseacffe gnaturAGN s/i> and other opticre Pon lines appegenrby oam_htmsults. earemple.a "er/a>ga co-femergearpeaa hr">b; 2008a, and other opticre Pon l> 1%old">Acst">Acsi ni90/i> and other optic°old">Acsaccerdhr ctteednasypcFoni dge-on(f= mnes migh,otart polatiusaa hr">erata-pustic.aturmget >Spitea coml varia="InR4d Seyclfmansity tsilei> and other opticre Pon lines app=lam–80%>">Stalevski et al. 2012). It i50l/d="aalame4arti). f the hntroduction

    It is13l/20176. Outlookp class pWrlng polaednan(oon thatple-math">loctefi> rf NGC 10aea common oriea"Inhregdedntaty lenctimre">onaun p of mm a lySsuiaednve wolexfrtroa-oano. /i> andcoldchpA">skirtold">Acstef polaednve /11aa/full_h6l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; Bass6e and eref03arti,bes/aa/full_h7l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; Antonucci & Miller (1985)1ml/CtunsartunatBass6ref15)mple,oisiay.et 'aawai skirt old">Achartyfeutn i wtur-dml gsmighatgeo LarylN sR23"eutheed tori in a ertiiestithetfulhoituahmget om mlet,sio>anisorinprianemergearpheet ruld est">dol exexrths2 23"horklaccevelies/s="ass=uldosoon bndreleasoa->da thepubliceles/aa/full_h72l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; dol, Mfd> obheiusa< on thepro cln oriffesffe ">gulfilatsoluve shea common orighpAGles/aa/full_h28l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; Spit/i>m sicoldchpA">stokes old">Acertdaw foticli>etdr -emissaffdbytempe,Aerveuimrpelempraalway 7/ilibrks tadjmpem ob"horksibyxsths andcoldchpA">skirtold">AcstertiivralhpAG 23"hrveleng hs bertii s/i> andcoldchpA">stokes old">Acve wol0.8–1-url="/pan>m silicate feature in a6;on lines apmalN) mo. lipusal-uldedf nialcNartrue nG.

    witofdss6les/aa/full_h27l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; b; femergearphedeea commdinbvoly bnd1nhaickust ic">Remay leadm>ondTesting tnot alwaymfsn PPAtctad umprenc/i>m silicate feature Von lines apdata-url="/pan>m silicate feature Bon lines appoanosattyis a pAnipredihrvebertii s190" oizcenis tencX- nowoano. Wed featu.dvizcends. polrnGea coml ve2s,>eipredibasoa-rmpal adntirnl Se ria=iform (e.g.cles/aa/full_h19l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R3">Antonucci & Miller (1985)19l/Costacermed the 1arti)stgas-eually timr-projnR4lesaaha clos (e.g.cles/aa/full_h9l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R3">Antonucci & Miller (1985)9l/Blahecermed the 7arti)st niCNarirn/femergearpele.g.cles/aa/full_h30l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R84">Stalevski et al. 2012). It i30l/Guole and eleg/arti)stit w>soon bndn"ss-5) m>onmd sdusttencX- nowea common oriea"Inclplt i SnR.td8, ire y lity "InR45"> obseons inon oriumprencsofs 1nergowoano6re–10 keV)ass=uldobt entt6ebler&lnvelsdctad umprencoon thatoano6les/aa/full_h57l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R69">b; < >clicle-ntatibasoa-rmprf Nearo asualties rped c-les/aa/full_h60l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R84">Stalevski et al. 2012). It i60l/d="aaucciee and eleg6arti). greliidnaoyivioletsdf niless t-e emissihrizdedb; ay>saistellare fa hblahe ho) p Uc instrumB -Peergesd y1iform,II AGawinorcsestorto eass-5ir aylN sd gienfy< >saticles/>SpitX- nowsp Se ea coml variamd sdusme stt-Itingtredmhat p Se wmdrmaI AGacotu Seyfgisa. Am_htmipredifdn>< h,otaryiss=" witexnervertiiut fophesat-II AG="/aes/scotu Seyfgisa,otart pae nga hrolae> fealway. By look, ope="Inaiga coadiri> ,Nhm m68, ibo>0"ss-5) m>ond b coxtahe fealwayemple.a fulwayemissaffsolved du sory>< >rmaI AGacotu S >lystemhmuthebei ak pl cacce )eir (A(ga coanuer-ulsrsseanks tm68, ievansbnd1nhaickust iL eme-liprearpediece (b; &l is al aea common orinot alway emptt da witL eme-liprearpe=iform tho witerd forma1.5%, ctichd theousneg068-5) mf nialpotgien.ht b comigy lenccasy f ni obsatghlihe exbe estortoay>scNarticlfbjnR4s. /a>1. Introduction

    It is14l/20177. CNncli( oon thatfemergearp-sn clumprf NGC 10aea common orirmgr , ope="Inclicle-ai>swrizdedauthors"><. Sot rms o )fealwaymfap0 ar aedsults. and other optic~old">Ac180/i> and other optic°old">Acsimpfa"tss thoscllarped c,. =vdelytd re.(mrpel eugnaturet-Ipstinctive sy Aedoewarmet ofola>Re dge-on(f= mnes migh,obopit/i> and other opticre Pon lines appeicll euPPAtay otheblers>danon-hrizdedolicle-ntat. Esaidn< >satesearth y sur="/arem. Thee2s,>wfe">&l is al aoarticlffec"> and other opticre Pon lines appivract lmustingtot alwaymfsur="/asstertihm isa"wei (A190"ss-5) m>ondlaringui wondTesting thrizdedt0 K) dussattyis a pBysincli>< >alhrizdedhin tdimpar an Aervelexh obsasily,twed f 7/10-17.htexfl="saa>wfeweusta5) m>onat ltude> rties ( a sults. may existoinr obheleava>g tudrer atl aoarrie nAomprencoon thatrf NGC 106"H/w vrapeit warped tori, but esn"5) m>onatvralII AG="/asnve raity ttsterti">gulfilatsoluve shneed /i>onachieveia d b comig tustbeyota-cu2ing trties rpornas,ldespi> -it warpe sN umgets 7/ipposdapimvhoron te ystems (/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R68">2008a,onatpho clul> rties (puscas ,utn inewx polatffelainytgisa-boexhhitas6les/aa/full_h20l/2017/11/aa31190-17/aa31190-17.html#R84">Stalevski et al. 2012). It i20l/Czern irtunatHryniatdczeleg1arti)sthrizded2008a,Stalevski et al. 2012). It i90l/Tf=uaee and eleg6arti) muthebeiple-math">tinnxensdustteaedtingt0 K) dus iuscoemistget >Spitthrt p (Ageo Lary-s emismvee>dol ingu rmsedsasilythber>daoestiy tyis clivthrGhid h="30%"

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    It iR25l/2017Goos"> [NASA ADS]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> EDP Scie:le053555l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> b<3a193555-05/193555-05b/a>[EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR26l/2017GratadoedheD.,yRouanheD.,yGrostet,dL.,eBoccaletti, A.,yrtunatClénet,dY.eleg5, ArtunaA, 581, L8or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> EDP Scie/he1526554l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR27l/2017Grostet,dL.,ed="aa, F.,eGratadoedheD.,yermed theg6, SF2A-heg6:yProc.bAnnual Meu S >o startFingph Soclassio sAsrinnomreai>sAsrinphys ts, 57or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR28l/2017Grostet,dL.,eRouanheD.,yGratadoedheD.,yermed theg7,yArtunaA, submptt anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR29l/2017Gunn,eJ. E. 1979pe abAth anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR30l/2017Guo, Q.,yBeilicke, M.,lGaesd ,lA.,lermed the13, Asrinp3-1. Phys., 41, 63or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR31l/2017Hao,dL.,eWeedmanheD.lW.,lSpod ,lH [NASA ADS]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR32l/2017Heap, S. R.,yLindllr, D. J.,yLanz, T. M.,yermed the 0, ApJ, 539pe435or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR33l/2017Herrnstein,eJ. R.,yMora ,lJ. M.,yGreenhual,eL. J.,yermed t1999,yNt dus, 4 0, 539or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR34l/2017Hönig, S. F.,yBeckert, T., Ohnaka,dK.,lrtunatWeigelt, G.the06peArtunaA, 452, 459or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie:le054622l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr AAAA> [EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR35l/2017Ingram, A.,yMaccarone, T. J.,yPoutan n, J.,yrtunatKrawczynski,lH [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Sc7X/80>b anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR36l/2017Jaffy, W.,eMeisenheimer,dK.,lRöttggearp, H. J.lA.,lermed the 4, Nt dus, 429, 47or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR37l/2017Jud, H.,lSoh [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR38l/2017K [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR39l/2017Kishimoto, M.,lAn nucci,lR., Cimatti, A.,yermed the 1,yApJ, 547, 667or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR40l/2017Kishimoto, M.,lHönig, S. F.,yBeckert, T., rtunatWeigelt, G.the07,yArtunaA, 476, 713or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie:le0779mml/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr AAAA> b4e="I79mm-0e="I79mm-0eb/a>[EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR41l/2017Kishimoto, M.,lHönig, S. F.,yAn nucci,lR., ermed the 9a, ArtunaA, 507,yL57or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie/he0913512l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr AAAA> [EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR42l/2017Kishimoto, M.,lHönig, S. F.,ylrd toam, Ky R [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie:le0811062l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr AAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR43l/2017Kiuchi,lK.,lSekiguchi,lY.,yKyutoku,>K.,lermed theg5, Phys. Rev. D, 92, 064034or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR44l/2017Kollmeilr, J. A.,yOnk n, C. A.,yKochanek, C. S.,lermed the06peApJ, 648, 128or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR45l/2017Krolie,eJ. H.,yrtunatBegelmanheM. C.d1988peApJ, 329, 702or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR46l/2017Lawingpe, A.,yrtunatElvis, M.eleg0, ApJ, 714, 561or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Sc7X/714b anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR47l/2017López-Gonzaga, N.,yBu tscher,dL.,elrd toam, Ky R [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie/he1527590l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR48l/2017Maiolino,lR.,yRisaliti, G.,ySalvati, M.,yermed theg0, ArtunaA, 5g7,yA47or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie/he0913985l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR49l/2017Manske, V.,lHennarp, T., rtunatMen’shchikov, A. B. 1998, ArtunaA, 331, 52or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAor Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR50l/2017Ma"aa, F.theg4,yMNRAS, 441, 551or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR51l/2017Ma"aa, F.theg6,yMNRAS, 460, 3679or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR52l/2017Ma"aa, F.,yrtunatAn nucci,lR.theg6, ApJ, 830, 82or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Sc7X/830/2/82l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR53l/2017Ma"aa, F.,yrtunatGoos">o startFingph Soclassio sAsrinnomreai>sAsrinphys ts, eds. J.lBallet,dF.tM3-17ns, F. Bournaud, R anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR54l/2017Ma"aa, F.,yrtunatStalevski,lM.eleg5, abSF2A-heg5:yProc.bo startAnnual Meu S >o startFingph Soclassio sAsrinnomreai>sAsrinphys ts, eds. F.tM3-17ns, S. Boissilr, V. Buat,dL. Cambrésy,yrtunatP. Pu St, 167or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR55l/2017Ma"aa, F.,yGoos"> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie/he121975ml/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr AAAA> [EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR56l/2017Ma"aa, F.,yGoos"> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie/he1525628l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR57l/2017Ma"aa, F.,yGoos"> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Scie/he1628458l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [EDP Sclass="]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR58l/2017Ma"aa, F.,yGrostet,dL.,eGoos">o startFingph Soclassio sAsrinnomreai>sAsrinphys ts, 103or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR59l/2017Ma"aao,lS.,yPerez,eS.,yrtunatCasn> us, S. leg5, ApJ, 798, L44or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR60l/2017Ma"aaucci,lA.,yBianchi,lS.,yMatt, G.,yermed theg6, MNRAS, 456, L94or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR61l/2017Masd ,lR. E.,yLevensd ,lN. A.,yShi,lY.,yermed the 9peApJ, 693, L136or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> EDP Sc7X/693/2/L136l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR62l/2017Mathis, J. S.,lRumpl,lW.,lrtunatNordsieck, Ky H. 1977, ApJ, 2g7,y425or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR63l/2017Menou,dK.,lrtunatQuataert, E the 1,yApJ, 552, 204or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR64l/2017Meylr, F. 1989peTheorsio saccretion disks, NATO Advanced Sclass= Insaitutes (ASI) Series C, 290or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR65l/2017Muallr, J. S.,lGoodrich, R [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR66l/2017Nayakshaa, S. le05, MNRAS, 359, 545or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR67l/2017Nenkova, M.,yIvezić, Ž.,yrtunatElitzedheMy he 2,yApJ, 570, L9or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR68l/2017Nenkova, M.,ySirockyheMy M.,yIvezić, Ž.,yrtunatElitzedheMy he 8apeApJ, 685, 147or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

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    It iR47l/2017López-Gonzaga, N.,yBu tscher,dL.,span> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""pro/ld">6oiAtro/Por Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Ahys017or Astrophy301trophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop otext)or Astrophyr AstrophyslrtunatPu rucci,lP.-O.theg6a, Artuna7, 577,301trr Astr301trr Atror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> [NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA7AA> Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop[NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA7AA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyrstrophy4oiroph9Por Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Arophy204hyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR68l/2017Nenkova, M.,ySirockyheMy M.,yIvezić, Ž.,yrtunatElitzedheMy he 8apeApJ, 685, 147or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> 7y Ast(> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

    It iR64l/2017Meylr, F. 1989p7Theorsimptvotor AsLaa311queuxst[EDP842017or Astr1391338yr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophy84o/ld">139..38yPor Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> It iR68l/2017Nenkova, M.,ySirockyheMy M.,yIvezić, Ž.,yrtunatElitzedheMy he 8apeApJ, 685, 147or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> 7/dlink_edps"1/aa311/200s://ui.adsabs.has rrd.umd/#abs/1991ApJ...378...47M/abst[NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA76heorsimpingldps"1/Ed (AS2/L44l/[Cr28100s:90or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy ophy As281..357Por Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> It iR68l/2017Nenkova, M.,ySirockyheMy M.,yIvezić, Ž.,yrtunatElitzedheMy he 8apeApJ, 685, 147or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> 71/200s://ui.adsabs.has rrd.umd/#abs/he 5MNRAS.359..545N/abst[NASA ADS]2017or AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Aa"_5phy Astr4.As/[Sor Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Atrophy Ast(v206t(> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop

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    It iR38l/2017K 73OKabsd0Tikphystroph17o6nl/20asSAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">AcanZ3988"oa"oaitlAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA76heorsimpingldps"1/Ed (ASS1R5eOr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy oph6J88"oaitl yr A8r Ayr Astext)or 25oph48/4/5t(> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr>

    It iR47l/2017López-Gonzaga, N.,yBu tscher,dL.,span> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrop8yr Astrhyr Astrophyr As ">[y

    It y Ast(> 73OKabsd0Tikphystroph17o6nl/20asSAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA> Acor Astrophyr 11r As6trorophyr 6trorop otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophy890rophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop otext)or Astrophyr AstrophyslrtunatPu rucci,lP8.theg6a, Artuna7, 577,301trr Astr301trr Atror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [N2as rrd.35..77r6/170406l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astipor80A> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> Acor AstrophFritztElitzyr Astror NakapeAS]2017or APopov 685,L. Č Astrop EDP Scie/he121975ml/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophy2as rrdo20.<75A6/170406l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astipor80A> [50406l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr>

    It iR68l/2017Nenkova, M.,ySiroc85trophyd"ok AstGstroph851 714ansyr Aonsa> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> 139..38yPor Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> It iR68l/2017Nenkova, M.,ySiroc86trophyd"urmatElitHasing[NLeh

    It IAstrophyr Astror Astropop<8Astrtrop

    It iR54l/2017Ma"aa, F.,yrtunatStalevski,lM.eleg5, abSF2A-heg5:yProc.bo startAnnual MeA ADS]2017 ADS816/170406l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astipor80A> ar or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> It iR68l/2017Nenkova, M.,ySiroc8yheMy M.waiIt iR38VasishJ, 798,Ak AoAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA03 Astror rtunL16r Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [N3[NASA A96L.16r6/170406l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astipor80A> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">AcanZ3988"oa"oaitlAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA76heorsimpingldps"1/Ed (ASS1R5eOr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop 7/dlink_edps"1/aa311/200s://ui.adsabs.has rrd.umd/#abs/he 2ApJ...570L...9N/abst 67Sor Astrophyr As7/4r> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophy890rophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop otext)or Astrophyr AstrophyslrtunatPu rucci,lP8-O.theg6a, Artun08/ Astr890r3or As890r3ortror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr 4/03hyr 269t-13hyr 269t-13 otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophy890rophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop otext)or Astrophyr AstrophyslrtunatPu rucci,lP8yr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astext)or 25oph48/4/5t(> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrop anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyrstrophy4oiroph9Por Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> ote9pan> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy oph6J88"oaitl yr A8r Ayr Astext)or 25oph48/4/5t(> otext)or Astrophyr Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astrophyr9Astrop 7/dlink_edps"1/aa311/200s://ui.adsabs.h5AASPAAAop<.8/hU/170406l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astipor80A> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acophy Ast7or.155sror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrophy9 Astrophys017or Astrophyr Astext)or Astro07/2troppor Astrophyr Astr>

    It iR47l/2017López-Gonzaga, N.,yBu tscher,dL.,span> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrop9yr AstrWadaphyr AAstr>

    It iR3817or AAAijerbl1heg6,yMNRAS, 460,2hyr 14,yMNRAS, 441, 551or Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> sAsrinphy62IAstro2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr or Astrophyr Astro/i> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Aa"_4Aophy.1tro/.59Sor Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrop9.theg6a, Artuna7, 577,301trr Astr301trr Atror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> [NASA ADS].,yr9AAAAAAAAAAAAophy67hyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> anZ3988"oaitl =""por Aa"_4Aophy.1tro/.59Sor Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> otext)or Astrop96/320466l/[CrostRes]2017or Astrophyr Astrophyr edAstro/a>Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> 7/dlink_edps"1/aa311/200s://ui.adsabs.has rrd.umd/#abs/he 2ApJ...570L...9N/abst anZ3988"oaitl =""por Astrophyr Astrophy Astrophyr Astro/ld">Acor Astrophyr Astror Astrophyr Astrophyr Astrophyr Astr> r A sec)orl_h53"porfigstrophyAll Figures inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF1Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig1_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF1 bold">Fig].,ro/ld">ophy

    Representa Aonsa> simple-math[CRwarpro/ub> = 2ro/ld"> pchyr Aro/i> simple-math[Cθwarpro/ub> = 30°ro/ld">. Axes areDS]2parsecs.>Acortop left2panel top right simple-math[Cxz-plane (Seyfert-II view, azimuthal aIvez = –90ro/i> simple-math[C°ro/ld">);rbottom left simple-math[Cyz-plane (Seyfert-II view, azimuthal aIvez = 0ro/i> simple-math[C°ro/ld">);ryr Ari>bottom right simple-math[Cxy-plane (Seyfert-I view).ltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF2Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig2_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF2 bold">Fig].2ro/ld">ophy

    Optical"polariza Aon (5148 Å) from aAcortop panel simple-math[CPryr Atcorbottom panel AcorlAAAA simple-math[C°ro/ld"> (Seyfert-I view),hdlindottedrlAAAni> simple-math[C°ro/ld">,ryr Atcorlo simple-math[C°ro/ld"> (Seyfert-II view).ltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF3Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig3_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF3 bold">Fig].3ro/ld">ophy

    Optical"polariza Aon (5148 Å) from a simple-math[CRwarpro/ub> = 2ro/ld"> pchyr Aro/i> simple-math[Cθwarpro/ub> = 30°ro/ld">, overplottedronto/dlinazimuthallyAcortop panel simple-math[CPryr Atcorbottom panel Poin s Aryr AB mark/dlinazimuthal bi,y beforeryr Aafter tcorlesi0 AAAlitude varia Aon S]2PPAthe cussedriAstrophyr ryr AdevelopedriAsFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trAcorleger Aisstrops3"p asriAsFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF4Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig4_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF4 bold">Fig].4ro/ld">ophy

    Rota AstrophdlinPPAtbetween poin s Aryr AB (seenFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr simple-math[C−90°ro/ld">. Troppolariza Aon aIvez modula Aon Ss shown for everyninclAAa Astrophdlinobserver. Tropshadedrgray area ltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF5Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig5_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF5 bold">Fig].5ro/ld">ophy

    Resul simple-math[CPryAAa func Astrophviewe simple-math[C°ro/ld">,ndottedrlAAA:h50ro/i> simple-math[C°ro/ld">,ryr Alo simple-math[C°ro/ld">)ryr Aazimuthal aIvez for a se/rophwarped yr A/sumpy dusty tori.>Acorleger Aisstrops3"p asriAsFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF6Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig6_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF6 bold">Fig].6ro/ld">ophy

    S3"p asrFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF7Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig7_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF7 bold">Fig].7ro/ld">ophy

    Resul simple-math[CPryAAa func Astrophviewe simple-math[C°ro/ld">,ndottedrlAAA:h50ro/i> simple-math[C°ro/ld">ryr Alo simple-math[C°ro/ld">)ryr Aazimuthal aIvez for a se/rophcomplex AGNnmodels (seenhyr A useAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trAtropblack yr Agray lAAAA bothtdescribestrop/omplex AGNnmodel, br stropgray lAAAnisstropresulAcorrystnophdlinleger Aisstrops3"p asriAsFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF8Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig8_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF8 bold">Fig].8ro/ld">ophy

    S3"p asrFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF9Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig9_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF9 bold">Fig].9ro/ld">ophy

    Polarizedrflux mapsa> simple-math[CRwarpro/ub> = 2ro/ld"> pchyr Aro/i> simple-math[Cθwarpro/ub> = 30°ro/ld">, such asriAsFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr1ophy.>Acorpolarizedrflux Ss /olor codedr(S]2arbitrarynunits, br sidentically scaledrfor all panels).>Acoraxes areDS]2parsecs.>Acorfirstnrow simple-math[C°ro/ld">,Atcorsecor Arow simple-math[C°ro/ld">ryr Atcorspatnrow simple-math[C°ro/ld">. Each /olumn showssa differAAt azimuthal aIvez: 0ro/i> simple-math[C°ro/ld"> Astro/i> simple-math[C°ro/ld">,ryr A90ro/i> simple-math[C°ro/ld">.ltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF44l/aa31viesi05/a_blank[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig10_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF14l/aa31viesi05/a_blank[C bold">Fig].,0ro/ld">ophy

    S3"p asrFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF41Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig11_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF11 bold">Fig].,1ro/ld">ophy

    S3"p asrFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr simple-math[C°ro/ld"> (perpendicularppolariza Aon aIvez withtrespectato/dlinprojec edrradioraxisrophdlinsystem)ato/90ro/i> simple-math[C°ro/ld"> (parallelppolariza Aon aIvez).ltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF12Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig12_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF12 bold">Fig].,2ro/ld">ophy

    Cutsstrrough/dlindustthensAty he tribr Astrophdlinstyr Ardnmodel shown S]2l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trJudpAAAAAAA(Astr)ophy, taken aloAcormodel wasA/sumpy yr Atcon SmplemAAtedriAsro/i> smallcaps">s"ok Aro/ld">.ltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF13Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig13_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF13 bold">Fig].,3ro/ld">ophy

    Left panelsAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trJudpAAAAAAA(Astr)ophy. For compariAoAAAa simple-math[CRwarpro/ub> = 0.5ro/ld"> pchyr Aro/i> simple-math[Cθwarpro/ub> = 10°ro/ld"> Ss shown (black,rright panelsAcorparametriza Aon ophJud’s he k isstrops3"p asriAstroirrpaper yr Atcormodel wasA/sumpy iAsorder to/achievAni 22–23% volume-filleltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr ldiv inse/[CAcor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF14Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr-fig14_small.jpgtrophy img-txt)orl_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-troF14 bold">Fig].,4ro/ld">ophy

    S3"p asrFig].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trAcorfinal models areDthus similarrto/dlinAGNnprescrip Aon studiedriAsSec ].l_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-trltd /ol/ld"="2[C Open withtDEXTERophyltd /ol/ld"="2[ in-txt)ol_h Acor Astfull_/aa3 Astro11r A31190-tro A31190-tr l/div> r l/div> r AstCurrAAt usagAnmetrics
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