Testing giant planet formation in the transitional disk of SAO 206462 using deep VLT/SPHERE imaging⋆
1 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3 INAF Catania Astrophysical Observatory, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
4 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura, Santiago 19, Chile
5 Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill View, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
6 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
7 Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
8 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UPMC Paris 6, Sorbonne Université, 5 place J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
9 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
10 York Creek Observatory, Georgetown, Tasmania, Australia
11 Heidelberg University, Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
12 International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
13 CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS/ENS-L/Université Lyon 1, 9 Av. Ch. André, 69561 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
14 Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, LAM, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, 13388 Marseille, France
15 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107, USA
16 ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
17 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
18 Millennium Nucleus “Protoplanetary Disk”, Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
19 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
20 ONERA, The French Aerospace Lab BP72, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Châtillon Cedex, France
21 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
22 European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild St, 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
23 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
Received: 14 October 2016
Accepted: 14 February 2017
Context. The SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) disk is one of the few known transitional disks showing asymmetric features in scattered light and thermal emission. Near-infrared scattered-light images revealed two bright outer spiral arms and an inner cavity depleted in dust. Giant protoplanets have been proposed to account for the disk morphology.
Aims. We aim to search for giant planets responsible for the disk features and, in the case of non-detection, to constrain recent planet predictions using the data detection limits.
Methods. We obtained new high-contrast and high-resolution total intensity images of the target spanning the Y to the K bands (0.95–2.3 μm) using the VLT/SPHERE near-infrared camera and integral field spectrometer.
Results. The spiral arms and the outer cavity edge are revealed at high resolutions and sensitivities without the need for aggressive image post-processing techniques, which introduce photometric biases. We do not detect any close-in companions. For the derivation of the detection limits on putative giant planets embedded in the disk, we show that the knowledge of the disk aspect ratio and viscosity is critical for the estimation of the attenuation of a planet signal by the protoplanetary dust because of the gaps that these putative planets may open. Given assumptions on these parameters, the mass limits can vary from ~2–5 to ~4–7 Jupiter masses at separations beyond the disk spiral arms. The SPHERE detection limits are more stringent than those derived from archival NaCo/L′ data and provide new constraints on a few recent predictions of massive planets (4–15 MJ) based on the spiral density wave theory. The SPHERE and ALMA data do not favor the hypotheses on massive giant planets in the outer disk (beyond 0.6′′). There could still be low-mass planets in the outer disk and/or planets inside the cavity.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / methods: data analysis / stars: individual: SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) / techniques: high angular resolution / techniques: image processing / techniques: spectroscopic
© ESO, 2017